Reduce, Refine, Replace
Reduce the number of experimental animals per experiment by:
- choosing appropriate species/strains
- using quantitative rather than qualitative endpoints
- careful consideration of a research strategy, i.e. pilot studies
- improving experimental design with particular attention to statistical methods
Refine experiments on animals by minimizing animal discomfort:
- developing suitable measurements of animal pain
- using analgesia
- minimizing pain and distress by allowing animals to acclimate to new surroundings, using suitable restraining techniques, and ensuring competency in techniques such as injections, surgery, euthanasia, etc.
- disseminating and encouraging refinement techniques
Replace animal experiments by methods not requiring experimental animals:
- using in vitro methods
- using physical and chemical techniques
- using lower organisms
- using mathematical and computer models, videos, etc.